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About Us

A Brief History of Churachand Hr. Secondary School

 

 Manipur maintained an educational system of her own since, time immemorial. It was a traditional system which aimed at all round development of an individual. Ancient Manipuri scholars had a clear insight into the knowledge of arts, science and social studies. They left behind many valuable treasure of knowledge inscribed on copper plates, coins, stones, etc, and books on different disciplines written in the Manipuri script (Meitei Mayek). Education was in the hands of private agencies. Teachers or Gurus or Pandits (Maichou) were the contrivers of education. Each learned Maichou or Pandit was an educational institution of himself. The nature of educational centres were mostly traditional. Learning by doing was the chief method of imparting education. But after the annexation of Manipur to British India, the traditional education system died a natural death and the western (British) system of modern education had emerged.

            In 1835, Lord Macaulay laid successfully the foundation of Western education in India. The sole purpose was to educate Indians in such a way that they should through Western education get anglicized in terms of both cultural and intellectual attainments. After the introduction of new modern education system, the traditional Indian system of education gradually withered away for the lack of official support and with it. Indian people got disassociated from traditional way of learning.

Various attempts of Political Agents to Open School in Manipur

            The Rulers of Manipur were quite in different to the spread of Western Education within the state. There was no school in Manipur till 1855. Between 1855 to 1860 the political agents captain Gordon established one English school at his own expense. But it died immediately after his death. In 1872, A vernacular school was opened by the political Agent W.F. Nuthal, at Imphal. The then materials north Rs. 500. But due to poor attendance the institution died its natural death. The Third effort w1as made by Sir James Johnstone to established 2 middle English school during the period from 1872-1883, but failed due to the objection of the Durbar.

Birth of Johnstone Middle English School

            Despite all efforts made by the political agents, there could not get successful because of the lack of encouragement and support from the Maharaja and Durbar members. The fourth effort was again made by Sir James Johnstone in 1885, but, this time, Maharaj Chandrakirti Singh gave his consent to Sir James Johnstone, Political Agent of Manipur by allotting a plot of land in Imphal, near Ema Market, for establishing an English Middle School with financial aid for the maintenance of the school. The Govt. constructed the school building and also provided a lump sum grant of amount of Rs. 360/- and securing grant of Rs. 30/- per month. In short, it could be stated that, the state bore all the expenses of the school.

Why did sir James johnstone introduce western education in Manipur?

            Sir James Johnstone might have throught, the traditional Manipuri Education System was not modernized and western culture was superior to the Manipuri Culture. So, the introduction of Western Education enabled people to learn with a modern view and thereby civilize the Manipuris. Moreover, he might be in need of subordinates, who could read and write to help him in administration. On the other hand, Christian Missionaries and their supporters found the modern education would encourage local people to adopt Christianity in large numbers.

Anglo Manipuri War, 1891 and Johnstone Middle English School

            In 1891, The Anglo-Manipuri War broke out, causing a setback to the little progress made so far in spreading western education in Manipur, the only middle school, Johnstone middle English School, was closed sometime in1892, and reopened in 1893 with an enrollment of 113 students. Gradually, other schools also began to be started here and there. The first primary school in the hill area was established at Mao, in 1893. Here is the list of various schools in Manipur on the eve of 20th Century.

Sl. No.

Name of the School

Type

Established

1.

Johnstone Middle English School

Middle English School

1885-86

2.

Sekmai School

Lower Primary School

1892-93

3.

Mao Thana School

Lower Primary School

1893-94

4.

Pettigrew School

Lower Primary School

1894-95

5.

Tera School

Lower Primary School

1994-95

6.

Phoijing School

Lower Primary School

1894-95

7.

Thangmeiband School

Lower Primary School

1895-96

8.

Moirang School

Lower Primary School

1895-96

9.

Ukhrul School

Lower Primary School

1896-97

10.

Thanga School

Lower Primary School

1898-99

11.

Ningthoukhong School

Lower Primary School

1898-99

12.

Moirangkhom School

(12 girls admitted to this school)

Girls L.P. School

(First Girls L.P. School)

1899

          

Birth of churachand high school (manipur institute)

            Before 1906, there was no provision of giving secondary education in Manipur. The necessity of giving secondary education was felt when the only Joshntone English Middle School which was established in 1885 could not open venues of Higher Studies to its students. The Johnstone Middle English School was upgraded to Class-VII in 1906-07 session and upto Class-IX 1913-14 session. The first batch of students, who receive British style of education in Manipur, appeared in Matric Examination at Sylhet (Bangladesh) in 1909. As there were no High Schools, there was no Matriculation Examination centre in Manipur by then. Finally, the existing Johnstone Middle School was upgraded to High School in 1921 by opening Class-X, and affiliating it to Calcutta University in the same year. This opened for the first time, a new chapter in the history of secondary education in Manipur. However, the school could accommodate only the first and second divisioners, as there was no enough class rooms in Johnstone School. There was no opportunity for the rest of the students to continue their next higher studies. So the necessity for establishing more high schools was keenly felt by people at large. Some pioneers like Dr. N. Leiren Singh, Nongmeikapam Gopal Singh, Chourajit Paul, Damodar Paul, Tolchou Singh, Koijam Amubi Singh, Kh. Mohendro Singh and Kh. Debendro, worked for the growth and development of Secondary Education in Manipur. As a result of their ceaseless efforts a new High School came up at Kangabam Leikai, Imphal on 31st December, 1929, and it was named as ‘Manipur Institute’ it got provisional recognition in 1931-1932 from Calcutta University. It was privately run and received no grant–in-aid.

            MANIPUR INSTITUTE has been started and managed by private enterprise. There were 10 Teachers in the teaching staff, 7 were Manipuris and 3 were Bengalis. There of them were graduates, Two of them have passed the I.A. Examination and the remaining 5 are all matriculates. There were 229 students in the high school classes of the Manipur Institute on March, 31st, 1932.

            The first Head Master of the School was Md. Walliullah Khutheibam. He was the first B.A. among Manipuri Muslims. He passed B.A. from the Rippon College, Calcutta in 1928, his optional papers in the graduation were economics & philosophy. The list of Headmasters from 1930 to 1985 are given below:

Sl.No.

Name of Headmasters( from 1930-1985)

APPROXIMATE YEAR

1.

Md. Walliullah Khutheibam

1930 – 1935

2.

Jyotsnamoy Dutta

1935 – 1942

3.

Ch. Pishak Singh

1944 – 1967

4.

I. Parijat Singh

1967 – 1972

5.

Kh. Gopimohon Singh

1972 – 1980

6.

M. Nimai Singh

1980 – 1982

7.

Ng. Ibobi Singh

1982 – 1985

 

 

Expansion for secondary education in 1934 -35

            The dedicated founders and Teachers of the Manipur Institute approached Sir Churachand Singh K.C.S.I., C.B.E.  the then Maharaja of Manipur, pertaining to some financial aid for the Institute. The Royal Sanction was granted to run the Institute. Moreover, he provided plot at Konung Mamang, near Sanjenthong and financed for the construction of the School building. Therefore the Institute was renamed as Churachand High School in 1934 with a new building at Konung Mamang. This is the second Boys’ High School in Manipur. The Churachand High School was managed by a committee of 9 members of whom one was nominated by the Durbar.

            School Committee and State Govt. decided to reserve 50% seats for the students coming from the hill areas of Manipur. As a result, the Government decided to grant Rs. 1,200/- from Valley budget and another Rs. 1,200/- from Hill budget, altogether Rs. 2400/- was given as grant to the school in 1932-33. So, it became an added High School in 1932-33. On 31st March, 1933, there were 264 boys on the roll, of whom 15 were from the hill, and the first Matric Batch of Churachand High School had appeared Matric Examimation in 1933-1934 at Imphal. As the Matriculation examination centre was opened in Imphal for the first time in 1933-34. 5 students from C.C. High School appeared in the said exam and 4 students passed in the examination.

            In 1932, another high school known as ‘Your High School’ was established at Imphal under the initiative of some local people, this school was renamed after the Princes Tombisana Devi in 1936 as she donated a large sum of money for the construction of school building. Thus, it may be said that Maharaja and the princess were great patrons of Learning in Manipur. Through their patronage the Secondary Education in Manipur took a proper shape. Unfortunately, this historic school is no more due to the short sightedness of our political leaders, as they failed to see the significant of educational heritage of our state.

            In 1935, another High School for girls was newly set-up by the Maharaj Charachand Singh at Palace Gate in the name of his daughter Tamphasana. So, on the patronage of then Maharaj Churachand, three high schools were established in Manipur during 1930-35. Here is the list of high schools in Manipur on the death bed of Maharaj Churachand Singh, during 1940-41.

Boys (High School)

Established/Upgraded

1)         Johnstone High School

1921

2)         Churachand High School

1929-30

3)         Tombisana High School

1932

4)         Bengali High School

1934-35

Girls (High School)

Established

5)         Tamphasana High School

1935

 

Second World War and Churachand High School

            The outbreak of Second World War struck a heavy blow on the progress of secondary education. In the Japanese bombardment on Imphal 10th May, 1942. All the schools were occupied by the military personnel. It was only after the end of the War that the Schools were re-opened. New Schools were set up and the educational atmosphere was revived.

            The Churachand High School, following occupation of the building by the army in 1944 was housed in the State L.P. School at Madan Mohan with the approval of the education Durbar member. The School was managed by a committee of 4 members including 2 Durbar members. The School received a grant of Rs. 1000 per year from the State, which was increased by 40% in view of the hard conditions of Japan War. The school was staffed by 12 Teachers:- 4 were Graduates, 3 were Undergraduates, 3 were Matriculates, 1 Hindi Teacher and 1 Maulvi matriculate.

Churachand High School After Second World War

            In the year 1946-47, there was an influx of an unexpected large number of students, as a result, strength of students increases to 979. Average daily attendance was 828.72. The teachers Staff consisted of 20 teachers (4 Graduates, 8 Under- Graduates, 7 Matriculates, 1 Under–Matriculate Hindi Teacher).

            Main sources of income were fees from pupils and the state grants of Rs. 100/- per month and the hill capitation grant of Rs. 1/- per month.

            Income in the year, 1946-47, was Rs. 27,266/- and expenditure was Rs. 29,608/-. So the school had a deficit of Rs. 2,347/- the deficit was due to a high expenditure in repairing works and  purchasing furniture and scientific apparatus  35 candidates were sent up for the matric examination, out of which 28 came out successful – 2 in the 1st Division, 3 in the 2nd Division, and the rest 23 in the 3rd Division.

TONGBRAM GEETCHANDRA AND C.C. HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARY

Tongbram Geetchandra, a renowned playwright, short story writer was once served as a teacher in this prestigious school. In 1940s, his service in this school was the turning point in his career, because of the Rich Library of this School. It is said that he was made as a writer in the C.C. High School Library.

Split of Churachand High School, 1951-52

            During 1951-52, there was a strong agitation among the students of Churachand High School, Later teachers were involved and the issue became bigger and Finally led to the split of C.C. High School in 1952. As a result, group of teacher led by Haobam Kulabidhu formed a new School at Purana Rajbhari knows as Public High School, later it was renamed as Raja Dhumbra High School.

Churachand High School as Government High School,1978

            The Johnstone High School and Tamphasana Girls’ High School were converted into a State Institution on 1st July, 1946. The Committee of the School were dissolved and its Management was taken over by the State Government. Unfortunately, Churachandpur High School remained as Government-Aided High School till 1958.

After the Reorganisation of states in 1956, Part C states ceased to exist, and in their place, Territorial Councils were established under the Territorial Council Act, 1956. The Manipur Territorial Council came into existence on 16th August 1957. The strength of the Manipur Territorial Council was fixed at 30. The Territorial Council controlled and administered the Primary and Secondary Schools. And a separate education directorate was created for the first time on 12th April, 1958 with Shri S.D. Bahugana as Secretary and Directorate of Education. From January 1958 onwards, Governments Primary and High School were transferred to the Territorial Council. Thereafter, 90% Deficit grant in-aid was given to the school and this system continued till 1978. As the economic condition of the school improves, school authority withdrawed tuition fees for the students of Class III to VI which were taken earlier from the students.

Attempts were made to introduce vocational courses in Churachand Higher Secondary School in 1986-87. Trades such as Tailoring and Carpenter were introduced in this school.

From 1958 to 1978, Churachand Higher Secondary School worked under a School Development Committee, even the appointment of teachers were done by the School Committee itself with the approval of Educational department. Finally, Churachand Higher Secondary School was fully converted into a Government Higher Secondary School in the year 1978.

Churachand High School Upgraded to Hr. Secondary School, 1964-65

            After 34 years of existence as a prestigious high school in Manipur, Churachand High School was finally upgraded to Higher Secondary School in the year, 1964, under C.B.S.E. New Delhi. During this period, Churachand Higher Secondary had 3 years course i.e. IX, X & XI. Students could take the option of Science or Arts stream in Class IX. This system continued till the academic session of 1974-75. The last batch of this system appeared All India Higher Secondary (Three-year-course) Examination in 1975, March. From, 1964-65 academic session onwards, Churachand Higher Secondary School had classes from VI to XI and it had produced many toppers of our state.

Introduction of +2 stage of 10+2+3 system in C.C. Hr. Secondary School, 1976-77

            The +2 Stage of Higher Secondary Schools are equivqlent to the P.U. standard of the Colleges. So, in the academic session of 1976-77, C.C. Higher Secondary School was upgraded to class XII and affiliated to Board of Secondary Education, Manipur. The Board conducted Higher Secondary Examination till 1992.

With the establishment of the Council for Higher Secondary Education, Manipur in 1992. The Council conducted Higher Secondary Examination from 1993, onwards and C.C. Higher Secondary School also affiliated to the Council in the year 1993

The Head Master post is also upgraded to the post of Principal as    L. Iboyaima was posted as the Principal of this School in the year 1985.

Here is the list of Principals of C.C. Hr. Sec. School are given below.

Sl. No.

Name of the Principal

Joining Date

Leaving Date

1.

L. Iboyaima

04/09/1985

03/02/1987

2.

Th. Priyojit Singh

17/06/1987

20/10/1993

3.

S.A.Malik Chishti

20/10/1993

30/11/2002

4.

A. Bedabati Devi

08/03/2002

30/11/2004

5.

O. Govardhan Singh

21/12/2004

28/02/2006

6.

Y. Nongalei Devi

29/03/2006

28/02/2010

7.

Kh. Ashalata Devi

23/03/2010

21/08/2010

8.

S. Indrani Devi

25/09/2010

Till Date

Conclusion:

            The Churachand Higher Secondary School is a premier Boys School in the State of Manipur with a view to Impart  Education for all Round Development of Young’s Minds. It has produced many luminaries in various fields: prominent politicians, I.A.S. Officers, Scientists, Doctors, Engineers, Army Officers, etc. In the long glorious history of Churachand Hr. Sec. School, even Churachand Maharaj himself and Durbar members took great roles in the development of the school. But, unfortunately, these days common people, teacher, administrators, parents and politicians have been complaining that the standard of school has been going down without giving any practical solution or suggestion. This is the historic Second High School of Manipur after Johnstone High School, The Third High School v.i.z., Tombisana High School had already disappeared without any trace. If the attitude of Negligence and growing discontentment in various fronts continue, then prestigious C.C. Hr. Sec. School will be on the verge of decline. This Historic School which was founded to provide education for Hill and Plain students will not be able to withstand the impact of commercialization of education. Last but not the least, it may be noted that the sweet scented flower planted with care by Shriyut Churachand is desperately in need of water, sunlight and a caring gardener.

 

Copyright © by Goswami Kebi (Lecturer in History)